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The articles held in the Notefolio on July 10, “What will we design for?” Seminar announcement. The first chapter of the table of contents focuses on cognitive vulnerabilities and dark patterns that designers who design user experiences, and the last three chapters to deal with things to think of as design ethics.
What is the tool?
Representative cognitive vulnerabilities
Dark Nuts Pattern
Can you set up a new design goal?
Can you think of a process that considers ethics?
Can you get out of blindness to KPI?
What is the tool?
I was curious about the meaning of the tool ahead of the seminar. Searching for “Tools” in the search box showed more search results than I thought. Among them, I liked the next justice.
According to the definition, the tool is passive waiting for the use.
There are two tools in the image above. The left bicycle waits for a person’s use for driving. Some people use bicycles for interior purposes, but this is also related to the intention of the person. But what about cell phones? This tool sends notifications and push messages without rest and talks to us first. But can we first call a tool that speaks first?
The early Instagram was “taking pictures” in “his current location”, “wearing a favorite filter”, “upload”. But what does Instagram look like?
We can see who you are with, who traveled with, and who you have from Instagram. Instagram talks to us with this information. Jeff Seibert, a former Twitter product director, says in an interview:
We use various apps in mobile as tools, but in fact it is monitored and tracked by the tools. Tristan Harris, a former design ethist of Google, says the current era as follows.
Tristan Harris is afraid of the following:
Normally, the point we call Singularity, or technical specificity, corresponds to green. It is time for superior artificial intelligence, which is superior to all human intelligence. Fortunately, that time doesn’t come yet. But Tristan Harris says that technology is more important than a time when technology surpasses human abilities. He asserts that if mankind does not pass well at this point, humanity retreats will proceed significantly, and that downgraded humanity will not be able to handle the green part. Tristan Harris said that it has already been quite progressed with the emergence of smartphones and entered into maturity. What is the “vulnerability” what Tristan Harris says specifically?
Humanity naturally obtained cognitive vulnerabilities in the evolution. Someone also says scars in the evolutionary process. The following is a model called Triune Brain created by neurological scientist Paul Newman.
Paul Newman divides our brain into three areas. The bottom is the brain of reptiles that are in charge of our instincts and primitive senses. This area is created about 300 million years ago and is also called a primitive brain. There is an area called the brain of mammals. This area is responsible for feelings such as sadness, anger, and pleasure. At the top, there is an area called the brain of primates. This area makes complex reasoning or rational judgment. It is no exaggeration to say that our day is the result of these three areas. If so, do these three areas come fairly? It is not. Looking at the decision -making process of ordinary people, the brains of reptiles and mammals are in charge of 80-90%. Cognitive scientist Gary Markus’s book, Kleuji, divides this as follows.
The brain of reptiles corresponds to the left automatic system. Most of our instinctive acts are automatic systems, such as unconsciously walking on the path we are familiar with or seeing cute animals. The symbolic system corresponds to our consciousness, such as solving difficult math problems or persuading the other person in discussions. If you listen to this far, it may be more beneficial to live a day. But it is impossible.
Therefore, if we live a day with the symbol system, it will be discharged half a day soon. Steve Crook, author of “Don’t Think (User),” a book dealing with web and mobile usability, describes “sweep” rather than reading when viewing the website. If you look into our day, you can see that you want to click on the button or to read the sentence of the web page and to grasp the context. If you borrow Steve Crook’s words, the moment we experience the web is a kind of autopilot. It is deeply related to the automatic system, not the symbol system, and has been exposed to numerous cognitive vulnerabilities.
Representative cognitive vulnerabilities
From now on, let’s take a look at the representative cognitive vulnerabilities with UX.
1) Intermittent reward psychology
The intermittent reward psychology is a representative cognitive vulnerability of our brain. There is a representative experiment that shows this.
Psychologist Frederick Skinner devised a “skinner box” that automatically feeds when the rat presses the button. Skinner analyzes two patterns in two ways to find out the preference of rats. The analysis pattern is as follows.
Breaking the expectations of everyone, the rat was crazy in the second case. Through this, we find out that the more compensation paid for the same behavior is variable, the more addictive the object is. This is called “intermittent reward.” Slot machine is a representative example of using these psychology.
According to one statistics, the earned profits of slot machines are much higher than the combination of all profits of films, baseball, and theme parks in the United States. And compared to other games in the casino, it is addictive about four times higher. However, there is an interface that is very similar to the mechanism of the slot machine. Pull it right and refresh it.
This interface, which is widespread in our daily lives, from Instagram, Pinterest, and email, has almost the same mechanism. When you pull it, it feels like the feed you are looking at is randomly changing. This is very addictive, such as slot machine.
2) absence of stop signs
How does it affect our cognition that there is no stop sign? Professor Brian Wussink, an expert in food intake, has conducted an experiment.
The professor divided the group into two, and one group was given a quantitative soup to eat, and the other group started the experiment in a form of automatically supplemented when the soup was reduced. Surprisingly, the group that automatically replenished the soup led to about 73% more food.
What are some of the interfaces without stop signals?
Perhaps you’ve been watching with YouTube or Netflix’s automatic playback features.
In the past, when scrolling, there was a “More” button on the floor. To see more content, I had to press the button to expand the area. But at some point, when scrolling in the mobile environment, you can see that “Infinite Scroll” without any more button on the floor has become the standard of the interface.
Azabaskin, the founder of Infinite Scroll, expresses responsibility for the infinite scroll made for the smooth experience of the user in an interview. He is currently working with Tristan Harris to restore a stop signal on the floor when scrolling in a non -profit organization called “Center for Human Technology”. It is ironic.
3) FOMO (Fear of Missing Out)
This cognitive vulnerability, called formo, represents fear of being alienated only in any experience or information. Dating App Tinder (Tinder) mentions the fate that may meet soon when he leaves the service.
Below, Illon Musk is notifying the appearance of a clubhouse on his Twitter. Illon Musk is one of the best people who use the psychology of the public to make formo marketing best.
4) Social Proof
Social approval is a psychology of finding the effectiveness of any opinion in the crowd. Below is a button design found on a wedding site. If there was no sentence under the button, the user is likely to withhold clicks. However, by showing the specific figures of those who have already used the service, the user gives the user a guess of “This service is useful.” In addition, all of the content I uploaded from social media feels like when I receive a lot of people’s lives, but the deprivation of the deprivation when there is no interest at all is social approval.
These cognitive vulnerabilities are not good or evil in themselves. It is only a scar that humanity has evolved and naturally obtained. Therefore, if you can use it well when designing UX, you can drastically reduce the user’s concerns.
What if you apply the concept of social approval as a corona notice to social media services? Below is a link to the corona provided by Facebook feed.
For some reason, Facebook is somewhat lacking in considering cognitive sentiment in this social level compared to its promotions and marketing. The following is the design I’ve tried.
Feed was designed to encourage staying home rather than going out of Corona. He also emphasized the social proof side by exposing his friends who had already to stay home with a deep relationship with the user.
If you agreed to stay at home, you give a special badge like the image above. I wanted to visually convey the feeling of being involved in the positive work of staying home in Corona.
Dark Nuts Pattern
Of course, there are cases where cognitive vulnerabilities exploit only for commercial purposes. This is called Dark Nuts Pattern or Dark Pattern. From now on, we will look at the representative dark patterns.
A typical dark pattern is an advertisement disguised as content or navigation.
Bait and Switch
The user wants to choose which option with intention, but something different from the intention. The example below is a case of clicking the X button for the update later, but the update is unintentionally started.
It is a dark pattern that instills shame of a specific choice for users. Below is a pop -up collected from the web, and the user does not want to receive a 5,000 won discount coupon, so when he tries to press the button, he becomes a fool who prefers the full amount.
This is a case where the price to be paid is more than the price or the initial process. It is often seen in travel or accommodation services.
Dark patterns often found in email. A friend claims to invite me to a specific service.
Personal Information Juering (Privacy Zuckering)
Some people have noticed in the name, but it’s a dark pattern from the name of Mark Zuckerberg, CEO of Facebook. When using the service, you often need to agree to share information. The dark pattern will go to the terms that are much more complex than you think by clicking on the details to read the terms. The user is tired of the vastness of the terms, just clicking on the ‘Yes’ button, but as expected, too much personal information is shared. Zuckerberg actually shipped in court because of these dark patterns.
It means trap to catch cockroaches. As the example below, it is easy to enter the service, but the withdrawal is very complicated.
It is a dark pattern with UX lighting in a way that intentionally confuses users.
Can you set up a new design goal?
From now on, let’s talk about what we can imagine in design ethics. The first is about the “design goal” setting. Let’s start with John and Nancy.
John and Nancy are colleagues working in the same company.
Nancy suddenly receives John’s message as above. It is a daily life we experience every day at the company.
However, this short example is part of the study of the collaboration between associate professor of computer science at Irvine, California, California, and Microsoft. This study deals with the time to completely recover from the interference of colleagues during work. Nancy completely recovered from John’s interference, surprisingly “23 minutes”. Suddenly, I wondered what the “design goal” of the chat interface used by Nancy would have been. For example, aren’t these things?
Easy to send a message.
Make the chat interface beautiful.
It is definitely meaningful to make the message easy to send or to make the chat interface beautifully. But would it be that that’s the ultimate pursuit when chatting is a tool for communication? I wanted to think again about the design goal. The design goal of the chat app that I thought again in consideration of Nancy’s case is as follows.
The most important thing in the new design goal is, “I value each other’s time.”
Nancy thought I wanted to focus again for 30 minutes.
The interface, designed with a new design goal, has a focus button. When you click on the button, you will find a picker to choose a concentration time. Nancy chose 30 minutes and guides like the right screen. It is a message that nothing appears on the screen except for a very important message.
John decides to send a message that is not so important to Nancy.
In the new interface, you can’t send a message to your opponent when one person is intensive mode. But it may be a really important content, so at the bottom, I placed a button, “Is it really important?” But the visual hierarchy was intentionally low. When you click the button, you will see a pop -up like the right side. In the pop -up, I set the “Affordance” button in the “I’ll send it later” than the button to send the message. It was possible because the person focused on the person who sent the message to the priority and designed the experience.
*Affordance: It is called behavioral induction by inducing something.
In the play, there is a technique that makes everyday things unfamiliar. This is called “small effect”. In the interface, which is modified according to the new design goal, the design makes each other again.
“It makes the interface beautiful”, “makes it easy to use”, and “I induce purchases.” These design goals tend to come 인터넷카지노 to reflexively, even though they have not been deeply concerned. In some cases, unconditional convenience interferes with any design goals.
Can you put a process that considers ethics?
In practice, it is often ambiguous to talk about ethical stories. But what if the process of considering ethical aspects in the design process is included from the beginning? This chapter will introduce “Judgement Call”, a team -based activity that executes the ethical principles provided by Microsoft.
Judgement Call has the appearance of the TRPG game to lower the psychological barrier. In addition, if you go to Microsoft’s relevant page, it provides a PDF that allows you to output cards used in Judgement Call, making it easy to access.
At this point, you may be curious about why you are doing a judgment call. Mira Lane, director of Microsoft Partner, says:
The “stakeholder” that Mira Lane says is not a user, but a variety of people who can be affected by the service. Let’s talk about this in more detail later and take a closer look at the process.
First, set the host. The host is a product manager or a product owner who knows about services and products rather than a person who has a strong expertise in his own realm, such as designers and engineers. The game can be played by 1 to 10 players, and it is recommended to limit it to 60-90 minutes.
Next, the host produces a product scenario. Scenarios are produced based on those who use the product and the functions contained, the time, purpose, and useful time used.
This is the most important process in Judgement Call. This is the confirmation of the stakeholder. For example, when you review the delivery app service, stakeholders are not an orderer, but a “mobile worker” or “apartment security guard” that delivers food. It is better for stakeholders to set as specific as possible, for example, when they review the kiosk -related services, it is better to say “an elderly man” rather than just “old man.”
Next, check the six ethical principles set by Microsoft. Is the technology or service fair? Is there a square in personal information or security, is the technology reliable and transparent? Review the back focus.
The image above is part of the process of doing a delivery platform in the past. The platform was simply connecting work with mobile workers. This seemed to increase the flexibility of jobs. However, if you look at the interface screen of the mobile worker of the service, excessive *gamification was encouraging excessive competition among workers, and actually led to the dangers and accidents of workers. For reference, the number of “1” on the right is a rating card, which can score a total of 1 to 5 points for Judgement Call, which is very high, 3 points usually, and one point is very low.
*Gamification: It is also called a game. It refers to applying gameplay techniques to encourage applications for applications, not games such as web or mobile sites for consumers.
Microsoft also provides tips for writing good reviews below, and it is worth noting to review the service even if it is not a Judgement Call.
Looking from the stakeholders’ point of view, not as much as possible
Explaining the functions as specific as possible
Describe intuitively without worrying much
If the participants are finished with the service, it is time to discuss according to the host’s instructions. Here, we discuss what stakeholders will have the biggest blow, which function is a key problem, or no potential and repeated questions. If a clear solution comes to mind, it is not necessary to find a solution. because
Can you get out of blindness to KPI?
The term “user experience” begins with Donald Norman’s book “The Design of everyday Things”. The basic concept of this concept, called UX, is as follows.
It doesn’t seem to be a complex concept. But it is blocked from unexpected things. It is a practical term. If you design your user experience in practice, you have no choice but to use certain vocabulary, mostly using it.
These terms do not look at the person who uses the service as “an independent goal.” It assigns a specific role to a person, such as “Subscribe”, “The person who visited” and “The Installed”. Berlin’s designer Johannes Epen describes this approach as “an isolated and tilted worldview.” He argues that an artificial set called a user should be put on to return to beings with individual goals. It is also a time when imagination is needed to find alternatives to the terms used inertively.
We think about them only while the customer is using a product or service. This limits our imagination. What if the customer pays attention to what’s happening when the customer doesn’t use our service? Johannes Epen says that the easiest way to change the point of view is to change the question.
Design for KPI?
Designers who design user experiences are curious about the effects of my function. And the person we affect is called “user”. The questions to the user are usually as follows.
The general method of measuring this is the key performance indicator (KPI), called the core performance indicator. It contains figures such as installation water, daily active users, and retention rate. This includes a question like how many users will visit again for three days or 14 days. Of course, KPI is a powerful tool that can measure the impact of user experience and design changes, and I do not intend to deny it. The problem, however, is that some designers consider that their design exists only for these numbers. There is a big trap here.
To be precise, it is one of the many ways to achieve business goals as ‘performance indicators’. But in my experience, most of them are identified with business goals. It is not worth it, of course, such as a lot of reviews and high -clicking buttons that are well -designed by Modal, but this should not be the goal we need to pursue. Because we
KPI optimization is like checking how close to the sign on the road. But designing and designing a good user experience is a much more difficult goal than we think. Selling things and allowing people to donate or join something must eventually exist in the process of individuals living and contribute to their happiness. KPI can help to see how the trip is going, but ultimately, it is important to be confused with the goals we need to achieve.
Johannes Epen says that the designer needs time to quietly take the purpose of the person who uses the service and where they are from life. What are their plans and what are the goals? Perhaps you want to dream a better relationship with a friend and become a good parent and pass on a good future to your child.
‘Ethical consciousness that should be held in digital product design’ (end)
[Soup experiment without Dr. Brian Wussink’s floor]
[Azar Raskin: Interview with Infinite Scroll]
[References for Dark Pattern]
[JUDGEMENT CALL Description Video]